The Rule of Law in Slovenia

Reform of democratic and rule-of-law state in Slovenia (Slovenian Research Agency, 2016-2018), Graduate School of Government and European Studies, Brdo pri Kranju, Slovenia

Reforma demokratične in pravne države v Sloveniji (ARRS, 2016-2018), Fakulteta za državne in evropske študije, Brdo pri Kranju, Slovenija

arrs

Summary

The global aim of the proposed research project is to investigate the state of democracy and rule of law in Slovenia and to develop proposals for their reform. The project examines whether and how has the Council of Europe (COE) through the European Court of Human Rights and the European Union (EU) through the European Court of Justice have influenced the conditions for democracy and rule of law in Slovenia. The project will investigate how Slovenian judicial, legislative and executive branches safeguard the democracy and rule of law. This research project will focus also on the question of how effective is the safeguarding of the human rights and fundamental freedoms in Slovenian legal order. It will study why democratic and rule of law state deficiencies are still present in the Slovenian legal order despite the influence of the Council of Europe and the European Union. In this way, it will identify the inadequacies and deficiencies in the Slovenian public sphere and devise solutions as to how the identified disadvantages can be removed. The central research question of the project therefore is: how to reform democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia.

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The rule of law in Slovenia is in a systemic crisis. This proposition, unfortunately, requires no support in an in-depth comparative law analysis. It suffices to have a short glimpse at the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, which demonstrates the degree of Slovenia’s compliance with the European Convention of Human Rights. It follows from this case-law, that the rule of law in Slovenia is failing in all those areas, which are essential for the individuals. Slovenia has been thus convicted for torture, police violence, medical mistreatments and lack of their investigation, for failing to ensure the right to family life in particular by the centres for social work. Furthermore, in its landmark Lukenda pilot-judgment the ECtHR went so far as to proclaim that the Slovenian violation of the right to a trial within a reasonable time is “a systemic problem that has resulted from inadequate legislation and inefficiency in the administration of justice. The problem continues to present a danger affecting every person seeking judicial protection of their rights.”  Not infrequently the judicial proceedings in Slovenia take place in a selective way, so that the individuals, who are close to the centres of formal and informal power, ultimately escape the arm of justice. In so doing, the very foundations of the rule of law, which lie in the principle of equality before the law, are eroded. The state which falls short even of the formal requirements of the rule of law, which is what the equality before the law stands for, is not and cannot be said to comply with the rule of law.

Substantively the project will be broken down into four parts: the first part will look into the historical reasons, in particular into the socialist legacy, for the present state of affairs in the field of rule of law and democracy in Slovenia. The second part will focus on the endogenous factors influencing, positively or negatively, the rule of law and democracy in Slovenia from 1991 till present. This part will also have an important comparative dimension, analysing the Slovenian experience in rule of law and democracy building in comparison with other transitional countries as well as the countries that could be qualified as well-ordered societies. The last two parts will be devoted to exogenous factors. The third part will study the democratization and progress of rule of law in Slovenia under the influence of the ECHR. The fourth and final part will do the same with regard to the influence of EU law.

Project work programme

The envisaged duration of the project is three years; it will be carried out as a joint research work of the main applicant, the Graduate School of Government and European Studies, and European Faculty of Law. The mere technical realization of research will take place under the above-presented research methods specific to the law. Therefore, the vast majority of our work will be done in libraries, at domestic faculties, as well as in specialized libraries in Slovenia and, if necessary and possible at foreign universities with whom we have cooperated in the past. The relevant literature will be studied in libraries, where also the writing of a monograph will take place. These two types of activity will take by far the largest share of research hours on the project.

Among the expected results of the project is the publication of a monograph on the reform of democratic and the rule-of-law state. In a period of three years we will be publish four peer reviewed articles in reputable national and international journals. We will organize three international conferences on the theme of the project. Expected results will be presented at national and international conferences in the field of constitutional law and human rights law. The results will be presented to local and international NGOs. In the civil context, the results will be presented to the stakeholders working in the field of democratic and rule of law and protection of human rights.

Povzetek

Globalni cilj predlaganega raziskovalnega projekta je raziskati stanje demokratične in pravne države v Sloveniji in poskušati oblikovati predloge za njene reforme. V okviru predlagane raziskave bomo ugotavljali, kakšen je vpliv delovanja Sveta Evrope (SE) prek Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice in Evropske unije (EU) prek Sodišča Evropske Unije na pogoje delovanje demokratične in pravne države v Sloveniji. Pri tem bomo preučevali, kako učinkovito sodna, zakonodajna in izvršilna velja oblast varujejo demokratično in pravno državo v Sloveniji. Predlagani raziskovalni projekt se bo osredotočil tudi na vprašanje, kako učinkovito je varovanje človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin v slovenskem pravnem redu. Pri tem bomo raziskali in poskušali podati odgovore na vprašanje, zakaj so še vedno, kljub vplivom Sveta Evrope in Evropske unije, prisotne pomanjkljivosti pri delovanju demokratične in pravne države v slovenskem pravnem redu. Na ta način bomo poskušali ugotoviti nedoslednosti in pomanjkljivosti v slovenskem javnem prostoru in pripravili predloge, kako naj se ugotovljene pomanjkljivosti odpravijo. Temeljni namen raziskave je torej odgovoriti na osnovno raziskovalno vprašanje, kako reformirati demokratično in pravno državo v Sloveniji.

Stanje pravne države na Slovenskem je skrb zbujajoče. Za potrditev te ugotovitve ni potrebna nikakršna poglobljena primerjalno-pravna analiza, temveč zadošča samo vpogled v sodno prakso Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice (Sodišče). Ta pove, v kolikšni meri Slovenija izpolnjuje minimalne standarde pravne države, kot izhajajo iz Evropske konvencije za varstvo človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin. Sodna praksa Sodišča kaže, da pravna država v Sloveniji praktično ne deluje na vseh tistih področjih, ki so bistvena za posameznikovo eksistenco. O tem pričajo odmevne obsodbe Slovenije s področij prepovedi mučenja in policijskega nasilja; zdravniških napak in njihovih procesiranj ter zagotavljanja pravice do družinskega življenja, zlasti prek ustreznega delovanja centrov za socialno delo. Še več, po besedah Sodišča vsakdo, ki zahteva sodno varstvo svojih pravic pred slovenskimi sodišči, tvega, da bo pri tem kršena že njegova procesna pravica do sojenja v razumnem roku. Ta se, kot je opozorilo Sodišče, zaradi neučinkovitega delovanja slovenskega sodnega sistema ter zaradi neustrezne zakonodaje sistematično krši. Poleg tega mnogi postopki pred slovenskimi organi pregona potekajo zelo selektivno tako, da posamezniki, ki so blizu centrom formalne ali neformalne moči, ostanejo nekaznovani. Slednje razžira same temelje formalne pravne države, katere postulat je enakost pred zakonom. Država, ki ne izpolnjuje niti formalnih pogojev pravnosti, kar enakost pred zakonom je, pa seveda ni in ne more biti pravna.

V vsebinskem smislu pa bo projekt sestavljen iz 4 ločenih vsebinskih delov. V prvem delu bomo preučili zgodovinske razloge, zlasti socialistično zapuščino, in analizirali njihovo vlogo pri sedanjem stanju na področju demokratične in pravne države v Sloveniji. Drugi del se bo osredotočil na endogene dejavnike, ki vplivajo oziroma so vplivali, pozitivno ali negativno, na demokratično in pravno državo v Sloveniji od leta 1991 do danes. Ta del bo vključeval tudi pomembno primerjalno dimenzijo, pri čemer bomo prikazali analizo slovenske izkušnje pri delovanju demokratične in pravne države, v primerjavi z drugimi tranzicijskimi državami, kakor tudi državami, ki jih lahko štejemo med dobro urejene družbe. Zadnja dva dela bosta posvečena eksogenim dejavnikom. Tretji del bo preučeval demokratizacijo in napredek pravne države v Sloveniji pod vplivom EKČP. V četrtem in zadnjem delu pa bomo pa bomo na enak način raziskali vplive prava Evropske unije.

Opis programa dela

Izvedba predlagane raziskave v okviru projekta je izvedljiva v obdobju treh let. Potekala bo v okviru skupnega raziskovalnega dela glavnega prijavitelja, Fakultete za državne in evropske študije, in Evropske pravne fakultete. Sama tehnična izvedba raziskovanj bo v skladu z zgoraj predstavljenimi metodami raziskovanja, značilnimi za pravo, zato bo velika večina našega dela opravljenega v knjižnicah: na domačih fakultetah, kakor tudi v specializiranih knjižnicah v Sloveniji in, če bo treba in bo to možno, tudi na univerzah v tujini, s katerimi smo v preteklosti že tesneje sodelovali. V knjižnicah bo potekal študij literature kakor tudi samo pisanje monografije. Tema dvema dejavnostnima bo posvečen daleč največji delež raziskovalnih ur na projektu.

Med pričakovanimi rezultati projekta je objava znanstvene monografije o reformi demokratične in pravne države. V obdobju treh let bomo objavili tudi štiri recenzirane članke v uglednih domačih in mednarodnih revijah. Organizirali bomo tudi tri mednarodne znanstvene konference o reformi pravne države. Pričakovani rezultati bodo predstavljeni tudi na domačih in mednarodnih konferencah iz področja ustavnega prava in prava človekovih pravic. Rezultati bodo predstavljeni tudi domačim in mednarodnim nevladnim organizacijam. V civilnodružbenem kontekstu bodo rezultati predstavljeni tudi deležnikom, ki delujejo na področju demokratične in pravne države in varovanja človekovih pravic.

Sicris

Objave / Publications :

Knjige / Books : 

Jernej Letnar Černič et al., Sovenija pred Evropskim sodiščem za človekove pravice : (1994-2016), Fakulteta za državne in evropske študije, 2017.

Marko Novak. The type theory of law : an essay in psychoanalytic jurisprudence, (Springer briefs in law). [S. l.]: Springer, cop. 2016.

Članki / Articles :

Jernej Letnar Černič, Uresničevanje verske svobode v praksi Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice, Bogoslovni vestnik, 2016.

Jernej Letnar Černič, The European Court of Human Rights, Rule of Law and Socio-Economic Rights in Times of Crises, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 2016, 8(2), 227-247.

Jernej Letnar Černič, A Glass Half Empty? Execution of Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights in Central and Eastern Europe. Baltic yearbook of international law, 2015 (published in 2016), vol. 15, pp. 285- 302.

Gentian Zyberi, Jernej Letnar Černič, Transitional justice processes and reconciliation in the former Yugoslavia : challenges and prospects. Nordic journal of human rights, 2015, vol. 33, issue 2, pp. 132-157.

Matej Avbelj, Rule of Law and the Economic Crisis in a Pluralist European Union, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 2016, (2016) 8: 191.

Matej Avbelj, David Roth-Isigkeit, The UN, the EU, and the Kadi Case : a new Appeal for Genuine Institutional Cooperation. German law journal, April 2016, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 153-178.

Matej Avbelj, Naše pravo in pravo ljudstvo: kako braniti ustavno demokracijo pred populizmom?, Podjetje in Delo, 6-7/2016/XLII.

Matej Avbelj, Constitutional and Administrative Pluralism in the EU System of Banking Supervision, German Law Journal, Vol. 17 No. 05, 779-798.

Poglavja v knjigah / Book chapters : 

Matej Avbelj, National procedural autonomy : concept, practice and theoretical queries. in Adam Lazowski, Steven Blockmans, (eds.). Research Handbook on EU Institutional Law. Cheltenham (UK); Northampton, MA (USA): Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 421-440.

Jernej Letnar Černič, Emerging Fair Trial Guarantees, in Christina Binder, Mary E Footer, August Reinisch (eds.) International Law and…, Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law, Vol 5, 2014 (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2016).

Jernej Letnar Černič, Transitional justice in Slovenia. V: Mateja Čoh Kladnik (ed.). Slovenia in 20th century : the legacy of totalitarian regimes, (Zbirka Totalitarizmi – vprašanja in izzivi, 6). Ljubljana: Study Centre for National Reconciliation, 2016, 352-373.

Jernej Letnar Černič, Polpretekla zgodovina v praksi Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice. v: Mateja Čoh Kladnik (ed.). Brezpravje “v imenu ljudstva”, (Zbirka Totalitarizmi – vprašanja in izzivi, 5). Ljubljana: Študijski center za narodno spravo, 2016, pp. 251-267.

Jernej Letnar Černič. Realising the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in National and European Fora. in Olesea  Sirbu (ed.),  Silvo Devetak (ed.), Rodica Crudu (ed.). EU and its eastern neighbourhood : fostering deeper europeanization of Moldova, (Jean Monnet Publications). Chişinau: Association for Ethnic and Regional Studies of Moldova, cop. 2016, pp. 7-25.

Matej Avbelj, How to Reform the Rule of in Slovenia, v Frane Adam (ur), Slovenia: Social, Economic and Environmental Issues (Nova Publishers, forthcoming).

Marko Novak. Arguing for certainty in criminal decision-making and the rule of law. in: FETERIS, E. T. (ed.). Legal argumentation and the rule of law. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing, cop. 2016, 147-158,

Marko Novak. Argument from Majority in Judicial Context. In “STUDIES ON ARGUMENTATION & LEGAL PHILOSOPHY / 2 VISUAL RHETORIC AND REASONABLENESS IN JUDICIAL DEBATES ” (Maurizio Manzin, Federico Puppo & Serena Tomasi ur.), Open Access by ES (Editoriale Scientifica) v “Unitn-eprints. Research”Repository, forthcoming

Akademski forumi / Academic forums :

1. Akademski forum, “Reforma demokratične in pravne države v Sloveniji”, 3. februar 2016, FDŠ, Kranj, Gosti: Jernej Letnar Černič, Marko Novak in Matej Avbelj.

2. Akademski forum, “Ali je kaj narobe s pravno državo v Sloveniji”, 20. april 2016, FDŠ, Ljubljana; gosta: Barbara Zobec in Bojan Bugarič

3. Akademski forum, “Populizem in militantna demokracija – dve slabi izbiri?”, 9. november 2016, FDŠ, Kranj; gosti : Matej Avbelj, Gorazd Justinek in Jernej Letnar Černič

4. Akademski forum, “To so rešitve krize slovenske pravne države”, 17. november 2016, FDŠ, EVRO-PF, Ljubljana, Gostje: Andraž Teršek, Jernej Letnar Černič in Matej Avbelj.