New book: Vom Kommunismus zur Demokratie

Lovro Šturm, Jernej Letnar Černič, Tomaž Zalaznik, Vom Kommunismus zur Demokratie; Inštitut Nove revije, zavod za humanistiko; Inštitut Karantanija, Ljubljana, 2020.

Description (in German):

“Die kommunistischen totalitären Regime, die sich im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts in Europa etabliert haben und zerfallen sind, hinterließen Millionen von Opfern. Was noch aussteht, ist eine gründliche historisch-kritische Auseinandersetzung mit diesen Regimen und den verübten Verbrechen, denen eine massive Nichteinhaltung von Menschenrechten und Grundfreiheiten vorausgegangen ist. Der Kommunismus als Ideologie ist immer noch präsent. Er perpetuiert sich in den linksradikalen politischen Parteien in ganz Europa. Sein Charakteristikum ist eine erhebliche revolutionäre Aggressivität, die als eine von Arten der Machtübernahme jegliche demokratische Form der politischen Tätigkeit ignoriert. Diese Konstellation zeigt sich sowohl in den Beziehungen innerhalb der EU als auch im Verhältnis der EU zu den in der Welt nach wie vor existierenden totalitären Regimen, die auf dieser Ideologie fußen und daran festhalten.

Die Beiträge im Werk Vom Kommunismus zur Demokratie sind Fallbeispiele, die am Paradigma Sloweniens Folgendes erörtern:

Wie die Kommunistische Partei Jugoslawiens / Sloweniens entstanden ist und wie sie sich Ende der 1980er Jahre als eine scheinbar sozialdemokratische Partei präsentiert hat.
Wie der Gerichtsprozess gegen einen revolutionären, hohen politischen Funktionär der Kommunistischen Partei Jugoslawiens und Sloweniens, erst 2005 wegen der nach dem II. Weltkrieg verübten Massenmorden angestrengt, zu keiner Verurteilung des Täters geführt hatte.
Wie einer 30 Jahre andauernden Gegenüberstellung von demokratischen Prinzipien in der Republik Slowenien einerseits und von Resten des totalitären Regimes in der Politik des Landes mit dessen Systemen und Subsystemen andererseits beizukommen wäre.”

Nova številka slovenske revije za človekove pravice – Dignitas, št. 81-82

Izšla je nova številka revije Dignitas – slovenske revije za človekove pravice (št. 81-82, 2018), ki vključuje spodnje prispevke.ovitek hrbet 17 mm-page-001-3

Reform of Democracy 
and the Rule of Law in Slovenia

The rule of law is the fundamental basis for the functioning of any constitutional democracy in a free and democratic state. It is a precondition for a person’s self-fulfilment and a functioning economy. A strategic constitutional and actual priority for Slovenia is to lay the foundations for the functioning of a real rule of law, which need to be internalised by the people, both in the public and the private sector. The rule of law is a precondition for the functioning of all state systems, as well as its social subsystems, particularly the economy. Slovenia started its path towards the rule of law only after declaring independence in 1991. In adopting a new Constitution—despite legal continuity from the previous state—Slovenia accepted explicitly and with high political consensus the values of the rule of law and the protection of human rights, setting them at the top of its normative, constitutional and legal framework. Slovenia thereby also met the criteria for joining the Council of Europe, which confirmed in 1994 the adequacy of its normative rule-of-law framework, both formally and in terms of content. Precisely a modern normative framework, modelled on Western European states with an established tradition of the rule of law, is the greatest strength and best guarantee of lawfulness in Slovenia. However, problems arise when it comes to putting it into practice. A fundamental issue of the rule of law in Slovenia is the huge gap between the normative framework and its realisation by those entrusted with this task.

The state of constitutional democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia is alarming. Confirming this proposition requires no in-depth comparative law analysis. It suffices to take a brief look at the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, which demonstrates the degree of Slovenia’s compliance with the minimum standards of the rule of law as set down in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The Court’s jurisprudence shows that in Slovenia the rule of law is not actually working in all the areas essential for individuals. This is demonstrated by high-profile rulings against Slovenia in areas such as the prohibition of torture and police brutality, medical malpractice and its investigation, as well as ensuring the right to family life, in particular through appropriate engagement of social work centres. Moreover, according to the Court, anyone seeking legal protection in Slovenian courts risks a violation of his or her right to a trial within a reasonable time. As the Court has pointed out, this right is systemically violated due to inadequate legislation and inefficiency in the administration of justice. Moreover, most judicial proceedings in Slovenia are carried out selectively, meaning that people with ties to formal or informal centres of power often get a free pass. This undermines the very foundation of the formal rule of law, which builds on equality before the law. A state that fails to meet even the formal conditions of the rule of law—and equality before the law certainly is one of them—of course cannot be said to be governed by the rule of law.

This scientific publication was prepared as part of the research project entitled The Reform of Democracy and the Rule of Law in Slovenia (Slovenian Research Agency, project no. J5-7359). The general aim of this research project was to examine the state of democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia, and attempt to design reform proposals. The research analysed the influence of the Council of Europe (CoE) through the European Court of Human Rights and the European Union (EU) through the Court of Justice of the EU on the conditions for the functioning of democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia. The analysis focused on how effectively the judicial, the legislative and the executive branch of power in Slovenia protect democracy and the rule of law. Moreover, the project examined how effectively the Slovenian law protects human rights and fundamental freedoms. Here, the question was why flaws in the functioning of democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia persist despite the influence of the Council of Europe and the EU. This way, we tried to determine the inconsistencies and shortcomings in the Slovenian public sphere, and prepare proposals for correcting these flaws. The overarching aim of the research was therefore to find ways to reform the democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia.



In terms of content, the project was divided into four separate parts. In the first part, we studied the historical reasons, especially the socialist legacy, and analysed their role in the current state of democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia. The second part focused on the endogenous factors that have been affecting—positively or negatively—democracy and the rule of law in Slovenia since 1991. This part also included an important comparative dimension, as we analysed Slovenia’s experience with the functioning of democracy and rule of law with other transition countries, as well as states that can be regarded as well-functioning societies. The last two parts were dedicated to exogenous factors. The third looked into Slovenia’s democratisation and progress in the rule of law under the influence of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), while the fourth and final part analysed in the same manner the influence of the EU’s acquis communautaire.

These recommendations are the latest addition to the numerous scientific publications prepared and published as part of the project over the last three years. Since this project falls into the realm of legal theory research, which results in written academic discussion that rarely brings immediate effects in practice, the project at first had a more indirect positive influence on the society than a direct impact. Academic writing creates positive effects in the society in the long term by expanding and spreading knowledge. Initially this knowledge is limited to specialised and closed epistemic groups, but gradually it spreads to students, and through them to the wider public space. This is why the research team has decided to expand the scientific articles and monographs, which help inform experts and the public on the possibilities of reforming democracy and the rule of law, with this specialised publication, offering concrete recommendations for stakeholders in this reform area, as well as NGOs advocating the victims of alleged violations of all kinds of human rights that are assumed to have resulted from the state’s shortcomings in this respect.


The Future of the Rule of Law and Democracy in Europe

The conference on “The Future of the Rule of Law and Democracy in Europe” took place on 14 December 2018 at the Faculty of Government and European Studies of Nova Univerza in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The keynote speech on the rule of law was delivered by Martins Mits, judge at the European Court of Human Rights.